Living with the Lockdown – Treasure Hunt #22

22a view of mesaAnnual Audubon Christmas Bird Count: Some of you may have seen a recent article in the Montecito Journal on the 121st Annual Audubon Christmas Bird Count. This yearly winter event is North America’s longest-running citizen science bird project, with the data collected fueling Audubon’s work throughout the entire year. Data from the count is also shared with the scientific community, universities, wildlife groups, government agencies and the public. Although this year’s data are still being validated, you can get a sense of the size of this undertaking, by knowing that last year there were 62,000 Americans who participated in the count. These reporters submitted over 2000 observations.

Santa Barbara has played a major role in this important piece of “Citizen Science” for many decades. An area 15 miles in diameter is selected for all participants, with our count centered at the intersection of Highway 154 and Foothill Road. Now for the “drum roll” … Santa Barbara recorded 206 separate species … the 5th highest number of species in the nation! This record is even more astounding when you consider that we are being compared with places that are under giant flyways of migrating species.

What has all of this to do with More Mesa? We are both proud and excited to report that, More Mesa alone, contributed 24% of the species reported in Santa Barbara’s impressive total. This is especially impactful when you consider that More Mesa represents only 0.02% of the land in the 15-mile diameter count area!

22b road runner side

22c road runner cartoonRara Avis … a Rare Bird: This Treasure Hunt features a bird that has never been reported on More Mesa, until last Fall. It is the Greater Roadrunner; common in the Southwestern states of Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Arizona, but seen much less often in California. Roadrunner’s favorite habitats include deserts, brush and grasslands. Although somewhat rare, the Roadrunner is a species that most of us over age 50 met when we were kids; in the famous Roadrunner cartoons. This “Classic” cartoon series, introduced in 1949*, was written by Michael Maltese and animated by Chuck Jones. It ended in 1963 when Warner Brothers closed its Animation Studio.

*In a strange coincidence, the Roadrunner became the state bird of New Mexico the same year as the Roadrunner Cartoon was introduced.

For those who remember that far back, the cartoons featured Wile E. Coyote and a slender blue and purple Roadrunner. It is reported that the animator was inspired to create these characters from Mark Twain’s book “Roughin It”, in which Twain postulated that hungry coyotes could hunt roadrunners. With a shift of “who chases who”, the animator remained adamant that the cartoons always adhered to a rule that the Roadrunner would humiliate, but never harm the hapless coyote. However, after watching many of these cartoons in preparation for this Treasure Hunt, I think that Wile was ALWAYS harmed; and most of the time he was barely recognizable in the final scene.

In each episode, the ever-hungry Coyote repeatedly attempts to somehow catch, and subsequently eat, the Road Runner. On occasion, Wile chases Roadrunner, but never, ever catches up to him. And instead of making use of his superb animal instincts, the Coyote employs absurdly complex contraptions (think Rube Goldberg) to try to capture his prey. These comically backfire, with the Coyote most often getting improbably injured in a slapstick calamity. Many of the items for the contrivances are mail ordered (pre-Amazon) from a variety of companies … all named Acme.

Reality: To ensure that your knowledge of Roadrunners has even a modicum of accuracy, I would like to point out some physical facts of life; for both Coyotes and Roadrunners. To start with, I think they have little contact with one another when they are not in a cartoon.

Size: Coyote and Roadrunner are often portrayed about the same size, or Coyote about 1/3 larger than Roadrunner. The Roadrunner is 22-24 inches from tail to beak and weighs somewhere between ½ and 1 pound. A coyote is much bigger and weighs more; as in 3 feet long and up to 43 pounds.

Speed: In all episodes but one, Coyote chases, but never catches the Roadrunner, despite the fact that a Roadrunner averages 15 mph (sometimes sprints as high as 20 mph) and a Coyote clocks in at 40 mph.

Age: While the classic cartoon Roadrunner and its spin-offs lasted a couple of decades, live Roadrunners have a life span of 7-8 years max.

22d carSound: Roadrunners do not go Beep-Beep or Meep-Meep; these sounds were created by the animator of the cartoon. However, the Plymouth Roadrunner automobile, manufactured between 1968 and 1980, was not only named after the cartoon, but Plymouth also bought the rights to the horn and its well-known Beep-Beep. Among several other sounds, including lots of bill clacking, the (non-gasoline powered) Roadrunner actually goes co-coo-coo-coo-coooooo in a series of 3–8 downward slurring notes. These vocalizations are typical of a bird in the Cuckoo family and … no surprise … the Roadrunner is identified as a fast-running ground Cuckoo.

22e range of road runnerPopulation: Roadrunners were found in great numbers in Southwestern states like Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma and California until the 1940s. At that time their population declined sharply, not because Coyotes were catching and eating them, but because they were shot and killed under an umbrella of federal and state bounties. Today however, loss of habitat is a much bigger threat. Massive development, especially in California, pushes Roadrunners out of their homes, fragments their territories, drives away prey and eliminates nesting sites. Maps of Roadrunner locations list populations in many parts of California as “uncommon”. And a 1994 scholarly paper on Roadrunners declared them extirpated; locally extinct in Santa Barbara. Guess what? They’re back!

road runner closeInteresting and Different: Actual roadrunners are far more interesting than their cartoon counterparts. The Roadrunner, unlike most birds, runs rather than flies, and feeds on some of the most unappetizing animals imaginable. These include scorpions, black widows and even venomous rattlesnakes. In fact, as omnivores, they will eat anything that is alive, weighs less than a pound, is moving and is not poisonous! It is also curiously unafraid of humans. Typically, a Roadrunner will trot up close, cock its head and peer at us, raise and lower its mop of shaggy crest and flip its long tail expressively. (The long tail feathers provide balance not only when it is looking at you, but when it is running as well.) These unusual traits point to it being completely unafraid and undeniably zany! (After all, the cartoon was part of the “Looney Tunes”family.)

22f road runner flyingNot Much Reason to Fly: Because they can run fast and find almost all of their food on the ground, why bother to fly? Only if a Roadrunner has to escape a predator, reach a branch, or catch a flying insect, will it actually fly. The flight is then for very short distances, and only for a few seconds before it glides to a landing. This particular bird is simply not constructed for flying. The reason is that its skeleton cannot support a point of attachment for the large pectoral muscles required for prolonged and vigorous flight.

22g small road runnerKeeping Warm: On cool desert nights, Roadrunners enter a state of torpor by dropping their body temperatures; thereby conserving energy. To recover from their cold night of slumber, they spend the morning lying out in the sunlight, with their feathers raised to allow the sun to reach their black skin. If daytime temperatures drop in winter, they use the sun to warm up several times a day.

22h road runner mouthWhat About a Social Life?  With all that chasing, “Roadrunner” did not have much chance for a social life. However, live Roadrunners are very serious about family matters. They defend their territory, have elaborate mating rituals, form life-long bonds and cooperatively work together in all aspects of reproduction. In order make the nest ready for eggs, each member of the pair has specific tasks. The male collects materials for the nest and the female builds it. She then lays 3-10 eggs. While both parents take turns incubating the eggs during the day, he gets all the night duty, because his body temperature does not drop after dark during nesting. Chicks hatch in 3 weeks and both parents will feed, protect and care for them for about a month. In favorable seasons (lots of food around) they can raise 3 broods of young in a single season.

Lots of Babies ...
Lots of Babies …

In the area of reproduction, Roadrunners are model parents and the absolute antihesis of their Cuckoo relatives. Many other Cuckoos NEVER build nests, but always lay their eggs in other bird’s nests and trust that the parents of the invaded nests will raise their young for them!

... to Feed
… to Feed

Where Are They in Winter? A puzzling question is why Roadrunners are observed much less frequently in winter months. Although there is no definitive answer as to where the Roadrunners are, there is some speculation about what may be going on. Migration is impossible because they can’t fly for more than a few seconds. Some observers have theorized that they hibernate, but thus far there is no evidence supporting that hypothesis. Others offer the possibility that they go into their “nighttime torpor state” for a long period. Unhappily, there is no evidence for that either. Maybe they have immigrated to More Mesa because of our great climate?

For a quick overview of this zany, unbirdlike bird take a look at this short video from the Arizona Game and Fish Department.

We are grateful and truly indebted to Doris Evans of Tucson Arizona for her wonderful and detailed photos of a pair of Roadrunner parents and how they raised and cared for their young. Many thanks Doris!

Stay safe … Valerie

Living with the Lockdown – Treasure Hunt #21

kites in fliteMMPC’s Signature Bird …

You may have noticed that there was no hunting for treasures last month. We guessed that you all were busy enough with the dual tasks of keeping safe and the holidays. Instead, you received a version of our yearly holiday greeting; a beautiful photo of a White-tailed Kite wearing a Santa Hat. This is the typical holiday card our supporters receive each year, along with a brief message from a respected environmental hero. This year, and in keeping with the unusual nature of 2020, we sent a longer message and one hopefully more appropriate to the times we are living through.
Sitting Kite

kite at restWhite-tailed Kite: The beautiful White-tailed Kite is the signature bird of MMPC and has been associated with us since we began our work more than 20 years ago. Because Kites are so very special, they are one of only 12 fully protected birds in the state of California. Our state’s classification of “Fully Protected” was, and remains, a way to identify and provide additional protection to those animals that are rare or face possible extinction. Further, with regard to the Federal Government, even though the White-tailed Kite is not listed as under the Endangered Species Act, it receives protection under the Federal Migratory Bird Treaty Act. Both of these are very serious protections!

kite rangeWhere Are They: White-tailed Kites can be found on the West and Gulf Coasts of the United States and into Central and South America. Locally, they can be observed year-round along the California Coast, in open grassland, marshes and agricultural areas. Closer to home, our own More Mesa has played a vital role in the recovery of the species, not only on the South Coast, but for the whole state. It has accomplished this because it offers the critical hunting and nesting habitat necessary to support high densities of Kites. Therefore, as agricultural land in the Goleta Valley continues to shrink rapidly, preservation of More Mesa becomes an increasingly crucial part of safeguarding this beautiful bird.

In good years, with plenty of rain, you can find several pairs of Kites in different areas of the Goleta Valley. In bad years, such as the protracted drought we are currently experiencing, we are lucky to have a single pair … and that pair, almost always makes its home on More Mesa. The historical site for a single pair has repeatedly been on Eastern More Mesa just north of the Cottonwood Grove, but this year things seem to be changing. We have at least one resident pair seen either in the central or western part of More Mesa.

kite logoBeautiful and Easily Seen: The White-tailed Kite is a small hawk, easily identified by the all-white body and tail, and the black wing patches which are visible in flight or sitting. The open wings are sharply pointed with a three-foot span. Juveniles can be identified because their chest and head are lightly streaked with reddish/reddish orange color. And … all Kites have red eyes! But the dead-giveaway for a White-tailed Kite is their unusual hover flight when hunting. (More on this later.)

The More Mesa Menu: More Mesa’s open grasslands provide important foraging habitat for Kites. Indeed almost 80% of More Mesa’s grasslands have been identified as either primary, or secondary White-tailed Kite foraging areas. Why grasslands? Kites feed primarily on small rodents that are active by day in open country, particularly voles and house mice. These critters eat seeds, and grasslands generate millions and millions of seeds per acre.

It is for this reason that droughts are particularly hard on Kite populations. Low rainfall does not encourage prolific grasslands and their all-important seeds. Less food for the rodent population translates into fewer rodents and thus less food for Kites.

mesa wideHunting Strategy: White-tailed Kites almost always hunt by hovering. (Watch this video to truly understand what is going on.) This distinctive hover behavior lasts up to a minute and ends with a successful prey strike only about 10% of the time.

kite huntingDuring “the hover”, the Kite is searching for prey, but in a very unusual fashion. As we have learned in past Treasure Hunts, avian vision is different for different species, and extremely well adapted in many remarkable and extraordinary ways. Their most incredible adaptation is their high resolution eyesight. However, the most unusual adaptation for avian vision, and raptors in particular, is the ability to see in the ultraviolet (UV). For those birds, who prey on rodents like voles and mice, this ability gives them a distinctive edge when hunting. This is because their prey, rodents, like many other species, use scent as a communication mechanism; marking territories, mating etc. Therefore, in these species, long scent trails become obvious markers of where the animal has been. An easier way to explain this is that rodents urinate by constantly “piddling”, leaving a trail behind them wherever they go. The usefulness of this habit to a hungry Kite takes a little explaining.

The explanation goes like this. For a long time, researchers were aware that scent marks of small rodents become visible when these markings absorb part of the UV radiation present in sunlight, and then reemit the absorbed energy as visible light. This is the process of fluorescence. However, a recent finding shows that scent marks left by voles (who urinate almost continuously), are also detectable by kestrels from reflected UV light. You might compare all of this to how a plane lands by watching the markings on the runway of the airfield. Clever … right?

kites in lineMeeting Up: White-tailed Kites often have winter get-togethers in what is known as a communal roost. The “roost” is when a group of individuals, typically of the same species, congregate in an area based on some external signal. In the case of Kites, that signal is nightfall. Once the roost is established, the birds return to the same place every evening around dusk. The benefits of this gathering could include better hunting, warmth, protection from predators and just plain “getting together with the gang”. (I learned a new phrase for this benefit; “conspecific interactions”.) While watching Kites in a recent large roost (see photo by Barry Rowan), I was also told by a well-known and recognized local birder, that he thought the juveniles were especially focused on the roost so they could select the best partners for the spring nesting season. (Does this remind you of going to the dance at the gym to pick out the best guy or gal to be with?)

Historically, More Mesa supported one of the largest White-tailed Kite roosts in California. At one point, it was thought that 5% of California’s population resided here. Sadly, the Kite population of the Goleta Valley continues to decline as agriculture disappears and urban pressure takes its toll. As a result, roosting has been sporadic for almost two decades. However, when the drought took a year off in 2019, the Kite population exploded and we were privileged and delighted to be able to observe roosting on More Mesa; as early as September. Although there are only 14 Kites in the photo above, there were up to 28 birds spotted at various times and it was a real treat!

kite twig transportKeeping the Species From Disappearing … Chicks: More Mesa is considered the most important location for White-tailed Kite nesting on the South Coast. Because of the significance of this special bird, researchers have been studying and recording More Mesa’s Kites for nearly half a century. In pages 29-33 of our award winning More Mesa Handbook you can see that More Mesa consistently supports from one to three nesting sites with double-clutching (two families in one year) also observed in good rain years.

kite babiesDecember is courting season for White-tailed Kites. (Perhaps the males are seeking out that one female who caught their eye at the roost?) Courtship can often be in the form of ritualized displays. In one of these, a male offers prey to a female and then, in a spectacular aerial exchange, the female flies up to meet the male, turns upside-down, and grasps the prey. After they are both suitably impressed with one another, the two will form a monogamous pair in December, and stay together year-round. Nest building starts in January with White-tailed Kites typically choosing nurseries in the upper third of trees that may be 10–160 feet tall. The nest, which is made of twigs and lined with grass, weeds, or leaves can be built by the female or the pair. Its construction takes 1-4 weeks. When complete, the female usually lays 4 eggs and incubates them for about a month. During that time, the male brings food to the her and continues to do so until the eggs hatch. However, once the chicks have hatched, dad has to find food for both mom and the growing chicks! Mom is then responsible for transferring the food he delivers to the chicks in the nest. Even after the chicks have learned to fly, they are expecting free meals from dad. And, like most teenagers, they are pretty demanding! You can see that in the behavior in the photo below … where two chicks are competing over food that dad has procured. It is also evident in the header photo where the juveniles are chasing an adult with food. After those two-three exhausting months for mom and dad, the kids are on their own. It’s truly amazing that pairs still possess the energy to raise two broods in a season … even with plenty of food around!

kites in fight

kite humansWhich Came First?: Ask any group of random folks what a kite is and they will say it’s the paper thing attached to a string that people fly on windy days in Mary Poppins. And it is. Ask the same group why our emblematic bird is called a Kite and they would probably say “because it looks like a “kite”. But it is believed that the bird actually came before the paper thing. Apparently, the word “kite” was derived from the Old English word “cyta” meaning to shoot up or go swiftly. Therefore, the word seemed like a good fit for a bird that could swoop on prey, hover in flight and soar. More than 20 Kite species are found all over the world so millions of people are able to marvel at their airborne ballets. As for the other “kite”, it is believed that the paper thing was originally constructed in China. Its form resembles the bird because the paper kite hovers nearly motionless in the air … similar to Kite behavior. However, it can never match the antics of a living Kite.

White-tailed Kites hunt in the early morning and late afternoon. Come out to More Mesa to observe this beautiful bird that is so very important to save! But don’t expect to see one at lunch!

Stay safe … Valerie

Living with the Lockdown – Treasure Hunt #20

cat opener
IT’S ALL ABOUT CATS … Today’s Treasure Hunt is about an animal that is both always elusive, and relatively rare on More Mesa, a true American native, the Bobcat. Although there were a few sporadic sightings on western More Mesa from 2008 through 2015, we have not seen one in the last 5 years. However, we are happy to report a verified Bobcat sighting on the west side of More Mesa a few weeks ago, and another last week in a neighborhood near the east side of More Mesa!

But before I launch into the mysteries of the Bobcat, I thought it would be both fun and interesting to look at “American” cats in general.

Mountain Lion on moss covered rocks during spring timeMountain Lion: The largest of the cats found in the U.S. is the Mountain Lion, also known as a Cougar. Although originally, they may have been more evenly distributed across the United States, their populations are currently highest in the western states. This distribution is the result of eastern Mountain Lions being systematically eliminated by early settlers and subsequently declared extinct. (Remember we talked about Mountain Lions still being around in the west but not in the east. That was part of the issue on the Western Fence Lizard and Lyme Disease?) However, clever western Cougars are now migrating eastward and occupying territories previously home to their long-gone eastern cousins; specifically, they are showing up in the mid-west and along the east coast.

Mountain Lions, oddly enough, live in the mountains above Santa Barbara and you might even be lucky enough to see one on the San Antonio Creek Trail out of Tuckers Grove. One was even reported on the east side of More Mesa in 2015. Despite weighing 150 lbs (on average) and being called a Mountain Lion, this animal is not a member of the genus Panthera (Lions, Tigers, Leopards and Jaguars) and is more closely related to the domesticated cat than it is to Lions.

Domestic Cat: By far the most numerous cat we have in the United States is not a native, but the common house cat … the second most popular pet in our country. Cats were domesticated in America when settlers arrived from Europe, bringing cats with them across the Atlantic. These were not your “lay on your lap and purr” cats, these were “working cats”; kept around to catch mice and other rodents on ships. It wasn’t until the 19th century that the idea of keeping felines as pets really flourished. Currently, Americans lead the world in cats, with 94 Million of them as pets and another 57 Million feral. (Unhappily, 69% of songbird deaths are attributed to feral cats.) Outdoor cats are also believed to be the biggest human-caused threat to other wildlife; specifically, they are responsible for the decline of 27 mammal species and extinction of 123 different bird species. By all means, love your cat but … Please spay it and keep it indoors.

north america cat rangeBobcat: The American “wildcat” we are featuring in this issue is the Bobcat, a native animal that is, for the time being anyway, a species of “Least Concern”, and is in the genus Lynx (short-tailed cats). The Bobcat has the largest range and is the most abundant of any wildcat in North America. Its population numbers between 750,000 and 1 Million animals.

Life spans for all the cats we’ve talked about are similar, and relatively short. Mountain Lions, live between 8 and 13 years. Pampered and protected house cats (aided and abetted by vets) last 13-17 years. Bobcat lifetimes top out at about the same as their wild brethren; 10-12 years.

tri-cat

Anatomy … Well Equipped

canatomyThe Bobcat weighs in between 11 and 30 pounds; about twice that of the average house cat … although I have known some domestic cat owners who have overindulged their pets to the point of tipping the scales at more than 30 pounds. Bobcats are between 26 and 41 inches long, not including the tail. They have long legs, large paws and black-tufted ears. Their name derives from their short (4-7 inches), black-topped tail which appears to be “bobbed” or cut off. (More on this at the end of the Bobcat story.) Predictably, Northern Bobcats are stockier and have thicker coats to help them survive in colder temperatures.

Bobcats may look cute and cuddly, but they are actually fierce predators. Not only can they run 25-30 mph, but like Superman, they can leap as far as 12 feet to capture prey. Indeed, they have been known to take down animals much larger than they are; such as young deer! Bobcats can also swim, but they would rather not. In addition to running and leaping, they also have some skills similar to domestic cats. For example, they use their whiskers like fingertips to feel around habitats to determine whether an opening is big enough to fit through. Their great night vision is critically important as you will see below.

Habitat … Everywhere

Why are Bobcats the most widely distributed cat in North America? The answer is that they have adapted to living in a variety of different habitats; mountain woodlands, coniferous forests, swampland, deserts and even in suburban areas (as we found out). They are so versatile that the “exact” appearance of the Bobcat coat depends on its habitat. That is, the colors of its coat and spot patterns allow an individual animal to remain as camouflaged as possible in its surroundings. The historical range of the Bobcat once extended right across North America, but hunters eager to acquire the soft Bobcat fur, and loss of its natural habitat has led to its disappearance in some areas.

Solitary hunters by nature, bobcats lay claim to an area of land that can be anywhere from 1 to 18 square miles, with males having larger territories than females. Moreover, they will defend their territory against individuals of the same sex.

While Bobcats stake out at least two or three different shelters, the most frequently used is the “natal” den (nursery), which is often a cave or rocky, cave-like opening that the cats fill with dead plants for bedding. Additional dens can take the form of anything from bushes to hollow logs.

Dinner … Hunt at Dawn and Dusk

cat huntingBobcats are carnivores and crepuscular hunters; that is, they are active at both dawn and dusk. Specifically, they wake up about an hour before dawn, hunt and then go back to sleep in the early morning. Then about three hours before sunset, they wake up again, hunt, and resume sleeping at midnight. An hour before dawn the whole cycle repeats itself. From this, you can see why Bobcats are rarely seen by humans.

Wonderfully equipped for hunting, the Bobcat has excellent hearing because its long ear tufts act like hearing aids; enabling the Bobcat to pick up on the soft footsteps of prey. When it is running at 25-30 mph, it places its back feet into the same spots where their front feet stepped; a strategy to reduce any noise that might alert prey. Their widely varied diet depends on the food sources near them. Though the bobcat prefers rabbits and hares, it also hunts mice, squirrels, insects, deer, geese and other birds and chickens … the later getting  the Bobcat into a lot of trouble!

Social Life … Limited to Reproduction

Bobcats are loners, except when it comes time to breed, sometime between December and April. The large territories of the males overlap with those of many females, and even to some extent those of other males. A male will “court” a receptive female and then breed with her many times over a period of 1-2 days. When they are done, he will move on to the next female that is signaling her readiness to mate. Like the spiders, the males play no role in rearing the young.

bob kittensBobcat gestation is 8-10 weeks and produces a litter with up to 6 kittens, but more likely 2-3. The tiny kittens weigh 10-12 ounces and will nurse until they begin consuming meat. The young will be born in a “natal den”, but mother bobcats move their kittens from one den to another on a regular basis. This helps throw predators off the little ones’ scent. The “absentee dad” issue presents a big problem and a potential threat to the whole Bobcat population. That is, when mother goes off to hunt, the tiny newborn kittens are not only extremely vulnerable but even blind until they are six days old. Coyotes and Owls, among other predators, take bobcat kittens. Young will remain with their mother for about 8 months and learn how to hunt independently. Females reach sexual maturity at about one year and tend to have a single liter a year.

Bobcats … Only to be Admired

Bobcats do not attack people … ever. However, under no circumstances should anyone attempt to touch or handle a wild bobcat, or her kittens. If you are lucky enough to meet one, keep your distance, protect your pets, back away slowly, take a photo and be ever so grateful that you got to see such a beautiful and elusive creature!

Threats … Other Animals and Us

bobcat treeThe Bobcat is itself, a fierce and dominant predator in its natural habitat. Therefore, adult Bobcats are only threatened by a few animals, the biggest concern to them being Mountain Lions and Wolves.

By far the biggest threat to Bobcats is humans! Because of the beauty, softness and density of their fur, Bobcats were hunted nearly to extinction in the early 20th century. Although they rebounded to almost 4 million strong, there are now only about 1 million left. The reason for this large decrease includes both loss of habitat by encroaching human populations and hunters. They are killed, both legally and illegally, for sport and their valuable pelts. Unhappily, due to the Bobcat’s penchant for eating chickens, they are regarded as a nuisance and are often shot by farmers.

Folklore … Fun

bob catroglyphsRock art often gives us clues to the lives of early people. For example, I found this photo (by Doug Sherman) of an Arizona petroglyph that does look an awful lot like a bobcat. In addition, we do know that the bobcat plays both negative and positive roles in Native American mythology. For example, in Hopi stories he is greedy, selfish and acts badly toward women, but in Zuni stories, Bobcat was believed to have hunting medicine.

A Blackfoot legend tells how the Bobcat came to look as it does. The story begins by telling us that a Lynx ate all the roasted squirrels belonging to an Old Man who was sleeping. The old man was so angry when he awoke, that he grabbed the Lynx by the ear and shortened his head by banging it into a stone. Then he pulled out the long tail, and after snapping it in half, he stuck the brush part in the Lynx’s rear. Finally, he stretched the legs and the body of the Lynx until they were long and skinny. Then the old man threw him on the ground and said “You Bobcats will always have a bob tail, you will always be short of breath and you will never run very far.”

WOW … he was really mad!!

bob cat closer

Stay safe … Valerie

Living With the Lockdown – Treasure Hunt #19

spider kids

THE BEST LAID PLANS …

The plan was to have PART II of the story about spiders to appear on Halloween. Obviously, that didn’t happen. So, what was the problem? As you probably know, Constant Contact has been sending our More Mesa Updates for many years. For all of those years we used their template; one that worked very well for us. Enter the Smart Phone! Because much of its material is being read on Smart Phones, Constant Contact decided to retire the original template and substitute a new one designed to work especially well for the Smart Phone. My excuse … it took me several days and several desperate calls to Constant Contact staff to learn how to work with the new template. I rest my case. Pretend it’s Halloween and enjoy Part II.

Why are Humans Afraid of Spiders?

grass spiderDespite the enormous benefit spiders are to us, humans are ambivalent about spiders. Fear of spiders is mostly cultural and not hard-wired into our DNA, as is the fear of snakes. (We talked about this in an earlier Treasure Hunt.) Also fear of spiders is definitely not universal. In warm countries, spiders are welcomed and appreciated since they rid households of less welcomed insects like cockroaches, flies and earwigs … all year long. Colder countries have the fall-winter change we’ll talk more about below. And, some of these colder countries also have less welcome species like Black Widow Spiders and a dangerous species of Funnel Spiders. (In the event you read Part I of Spiders very carefully, be assured that the species of Funnel Spiders on More Mesa is completely harmless. The one from Australia is the one to watch out for.)

Fear of spiders, known as arachnophobia, is so common that it is on the “top ten” list of phobias around the world. Some people think spiders are “creepy” because of their large number of legs (eight) and their habit of scuttling around in dark corners. They do that because dark corners are where they find food; food consisting of other critters you don’t want in your home anyway. Indulge me in another plea for spiders. They rarely bite, and all but a very few are harmless to humans. Yes, in our area, the Black Widow should be avoided, but even a bite from dreaded large Tarantulas produces only slight irritation. Granted they are definitely not cuddly, but maybe you could cut them some slack … given all the they do for us.

Why are Spiders Associated with Halloween?

halloween clip artHere are some current explanations:

    • during the Middle Ages belief in witches was rampant; as was the belief that they were at the height of their power in the fall. Somehow spiders became the sidekicks of witches and the same superstitions about witches were attached to spiders as well.
    • The colors of fall are typically orange and black and many spiders are black. So, with some sort of crazy logic, spiders were then considered representatives of fall … when Halloween is celebrated.
    • An associated legend had it that spiders were thought to have magical powers because they could spin webs.

What’s really going on? Fall is a time when spiders produce young. But more importantly, late fall is a critical time of year for many insects. They are searching for safe and warm havens in which to spend the winter … like your house. When that happens, your house becomes a veritable grocery store for spiders. Not as exciting as witches, magic and supernatural stuff, but more of nature doing what it has to do to adapt to changing weather conditions.

Spider Lifeways Are All About Females

Transitioning from the supernatural to more practical issues, spiders have to make a living, keep from getting eaten and ensure that the species persists. That is where we go from here. So, I started studying about webs, a fascinating subject. But as I learned more and more about webs, I noticed that the pronoun “she” was always used. Then I learned that the world of spiders is all about females and the tremendous amount of hard work they do. All of this was strangely familiar! Following is a typical “To-Do” list for a female spider.

Food Shopping

big webIn Part I you might have seen some hints about procuring food when you are a Crab Spider, but when it comes to spider grocery shopping, most of us think of webs. Since spiders are carnivores, webs become perfect butcher shops; places to procure protein; whether it walks in, flies in or otherwise.

A web spider has virtual rope factory inside her. The spinneret glands, located in her abdominal region, squirt liquids that solidify immediately into several different kinds of silk. The tensile strength of spider silk is comparable to that of steel wire of the same thickness. However, as the density of steel is about six times that of silk, spider silk is correspondingly stronger than steel wire of the same weight. Web silk’s unmatched combination of strength and toughness allows it to survive the strongest winds as well as the most frantic attempts of captured prey to escape. And if you are not impressed with the above comparisons, I recalled back in my youth learning that the Norden bombsight used Black Widow silk for the crosshairs … that’s how strong it is!

There are a bewildering array of webs, each species building a fixed pattern, with the talents of different species varying greatly. Webs are not only supermarkets but also serve as a safe retreat from enemies and sometimes as a residence as well. Some webs are crude and some extremely delicate, but the one web usually considered the most beautiful, and the most beloved, is the Orb Spider web. Although web building takes between one and two hours in real time, you can watch the tiny (half inch) Spiny Orb Weaver creating her 12 inch diameter web in a couple of minutes. During the build the spider will coat some of the fibers with a sticky substance that entraps any unwary meal, but leaves other strings of the web clear for her to traverse. If the spider gets tired of waiting for dinner to be collected by the web, and would like to sleep, she drops a single line to a convenient “bedroom location” and keeps it attached to one of her legs. When prey wanders into the dining room, the web will vibrate at specific frequencies that are associated with prey capture. At the call of this dinner bell, she will wake and hurry out to inject killing venom. In this video, watch how she packages up dinner in a silk bag and then enjoys it later.

spider treePreparing Dinner Unlike most humans a spider drinks its dinner. This means that before it can consume prey, it must convert a meal into liquid form. This is accomplished by injecting special digestive enzymes into the prey, waiting for liquification and then sucking up dinner. Its stomach can stretch to hold very large amounts of liquid, so the spider cannot really ever overeat. On the other hand, if times get bad, a spider can survive for extremely long periods of fasting … perhaps up to 1 ½ years.

Recycling And, since the Orb Spider is a tidy, thrifty critter and protein is expensive, she is also an avid recycler; i.e. the protein from the old web is never wasted. When the web is no longer usable, she eats and digests it. The web protein then goes back into the silk glands to be made into a new web. In this way, even if a spider misses a few meals, she can still go on spinning webs!

Taking Out the Garbage Like any good housekeeper the spider tidies up. Since dinner has been liquified and ingested, any prey body parts that are left over need to be cut out of the web and discarded. This same process is used for any extraneous and useless material that is blown into the web by accident … like leaves.

spider romanceRomance? In Part I we mentioned that female spiders have absolutely no interest in reproduction until their very last molt. As you will see, it is a completely different story for the males. Males are much smaller than the females, do not live as long as the females, are more heavily decorated than the females and have a much shorter “To-Do” list. It has one entry! Their entire lives revolve around a single aspect of their existence … depositing sperm. They are obsessed with this one thing and this one thing only. This singular drive is the reason their webs are messy and badly made. Why? … because males are not territorial and spend their lives moving around looking for girls. Under these circumstances building a good web would not make sense, since they will abandon it as soon as they have accomplished their purpose, and moreover, accomplished it with all the available females in the area. For the males, who are both nomadic, and somewhat dispensable, building a web is an exercise that is more like “pitching a tent” than building a home.

Courting human couples frequently go out to dinner. However to the contrary, males spiders try to make sure that the gals have already eaten. This tactic is imperative because if a female is hungry, she may just eat the potential suitor instead. Further, there is always that danger, even if she has already eaten. That is why the legs of the males are often longer than those of the female. In cases where the date is not going well, this anatomical difference gives the male a chance to escape. (In the photo notice how gingerly the male is approaching.)

A male spider will display several behaviors during courtship, hoping the female will accept his sperm. These behaviors include pulling on the web, rocking his body, pushing the female’s legs, vibrating his abdomen, tapping on the web, making rolling motions with his palps and tapping the female spider. (Reminds me of dance moves I have seen on T.V.) How the sperm gets to the right place is really complicated as I discovered in a really long and graphic article I waded through. (You probably really don’t want to know!

spider egg sacPregnancy At this point the female has both eggs and sperm in her body. Since she is so good at spinning, she spins a disc of silk and then deposits both eggs and sperm on that disc. This is when fertilization actually occurs. To protect the fertilized and hardening eggs she completes the task by spinning a cover over the disc to form an egg sac. In some species, she carries the sac with her everywhere, and in others she just deposits the sac somewhere safe and guards it, as is shown in the photo. One of the reasons females are so much bigger in some species is the need for her to carry around that heavy burden of the egg sac. Sacs can contain hundreds of eggs that will hatch into spiderlings in 2-3 weeks.

spider kids 2Looking After the Kids Just as mother guarded the eggs, she will guard the newly hatched babies. Once spiderlings fully emerge, they usually settle close to the nest area for several weeks before moving on and staking out their own territory.

spider head studyIntelligence And for something really unbelievable, we are discovering that the spider possesses genuine ingenuity and inventiveness in both its web design, as well as in many other areas. Recent studies published in National Geographic showed many species of Jumping Spider could plan out intricate routes and detours to reach their prey — a quality usually observed in larger creatures. And almost everything is much larger than the Jumping Spider! It is between 0.125 and 0.750 inches long. And its brain … it’s the size of a poppy seed.

Epilogue

spyder guyIt is all too clear that Stan Lee knew absolutely nothing about spiders when he created Spider-Man in the early 1960s. No self-respecting male spider would be wasting his time as a superhero when he could be mating with thousands of female spiders instead. I guess Lee probably didn’t care, since Spider-Man is often ranked as one of the most popular and iconic comic book characters of all time.

And, of course you knew that I would mention one of the scariest monsters in Harry Potter, Aragog. This giant spider that sired a multitude of giant spiders in the Forbidden Forest, was the size of a small elephant and had legs 18 feet long. Apparently J.K. Rowling did not know much about spiders either, or she would have made Aragog a female.

Stay safe … Valerie

Living with the Lockdown – Treasure Hunt #18

spider bannerIN KEEPING WITH HALLOWEEN … HOW ABOUT SPIDERS?

A New Class …

The next two Treasure Hunts will be about a creature which is found all over More Mesa and also epitomizes the month of October; the spider! Spiders are not insects. They are in an entirely different Class; the Arachnids. This Class owes its name to a famous story from Greek mythology, that goes like this. It seems that an upstart Greek maiden named Arachne thought she was such a superb weaver that she challenged the goddess Athena to a weaving contest. This was a little presumptuous as, among several other things, Athena was known as a goddess of the arts. Athena however, accepted the challenge. When both weavers were done, Arachne’s weaving was so beautiful that Athena had to grudgingly admit defeat.

arachneHowever, given that she was also the goddess of warfare, she worked herself into a rage and destroyed Arachne’s work. Arachne, being a really sensitive artist was so upset that she hung herself. At this development the goddess calmed down at little, took pity on the weaver and loosened the rope. Then she turned the rope into a web and the maiden into a spider. Thus, we have the class Arachnida and the very first indication of the powerful role of females in the spider world.

spider diagramWhat is it Anyway? … Ask any kindergartener and they will tell you that spiders have eight legs, eight eyes, two body parts and are “way cool.” In the diagram you will see that the first body part, the cephalothorax, is where the eyes are located, legs are attached and most of the muscular structure is contained. The cephalothorax is actually the head and the thorax, but with a solid connection instead of a flexible neck; i.e. the head cannot rotate. The second body part, the abdomen, holds the digestive and reproductive organs and is usually the largest part of the spider. (It also holds the silk producing elements, the “spinnerets”, that you will read about in Part II.)

Legs – The eight legs of the spider are usually long and hairy. Hairs are used to pick up scents, sounds, vibrations and to detect air currents. Males usually have longer legs to keep the female at “arms length” during courtship. (More on this in Part II.)

Palps – There are a pair of palps on the front of the first body part. These are part of the complex mouth and seem to be used mainly as sense organs, perhaps for taste and odor. In male spiders the ends of the palps are modified into complex structures used during mating. (Believe me, it’s complicated!)

spider mouthMouth Parts – Spiders are carnivores. To facilitate hunting these hollow claw-like appendages contain venom glands that allow the spider to inject poison into the prey thereby killing it and allowing the spider plenty of time to wrap it up for a later meal.

spider eyesEyes – Spiders usually have eight eyes, but few have good eyesight. They rely instead on touch, vibration and taste stimuli to navigate and find food. (Only a few spiders, like the wolf spider, need good vision.) Of the eight eyes, the job of the two very large front eyes is to get a clear, color image and judge distance. And while they are large, these are simple, single lens eyes that are NOTHING like either human or insect compound eyes. The small side eyes, called ocelli, needed because the spider cannot move its head, detect when something is moving. You need a lot of them to get a 360 degree view in order to spot your dinner or an unwanted diner!

spider moltMolt – What the kindergartener won’t tell you is that the spider has an exoskeleton; a hard covering that is like a suit of armor to protect body parts and organs. The exoskeleton cannot grow, which means that the spider, like insects, must periodically crawl out of the whole outside of its body in order to grow larger. Needless to say, this is a complex process and one in which the spider is very vulnerable, wisely choosing to “hide out” until the molt is over.

Spiderlings will molt as often as once a month and adults about once a year. Bigger spiders have more molts than smaller ones, with the molt requiring from 15 minutes to 15 hours to fully harden, depending on the size of the spider. And while all the early molts are about growing into a larger body, the very last molt is one which also includes a “one-time only” interest in reproduction … and decidedly different from reproductive activities of mammals. (See Part II.)

Size – In most of the 45,000 species of spiders that we currently know are on earth, females are larger than males and sometimes incredibly larger than the males. Most of the largest spiders are from the Tarantula family. The largest spider known on earth is the Goliath Birdeater (12 inches) from South America and the smallest is the Patu Digua (male 1/5 the size of head of a pin) from Columbia.

Lifetimes – Most spiders live about a year, except really big ones. For example, some female Tarantulas live up to 40 years, while their male counterparts are only around 4 years or less. How do we know this … because some people keep them for pets. (Figure that!) Although giant spiders do not tend to be aggressive, they will (like smaller spiders) bite to defend themselves or their egg sacs.

Enemies – Spiders have lots of enemies. They include birds, fish, lizards, Tarantula Hawks (these are actually wasps), spider wasps, centipedes, scorpions, other spiders and even, in the tropics, monkeys. But one of their worst enemies is the human race; and we don’t even eat them.  We use pesticides to destroy them (as well as all their food sources), we stomp them, drown them and some of us even vacuum them up. (Be sure to read Part II of Spiders to learn more about all our misconceptions about spiders.)

spider defenseDefense – The principal way that spiders try to escape their predators is to avoid being seen. Some of them live in burrows where a predator would have to do some major digging to find them. These underground dwellers also make sure they have well camouflaged doors. Spider mimics try to look like the background of where they live and still others mimic a dead leaf, a twig, a stem or even bird droppings! In the image on the right a crab spider has turned yellow and captured an unsuspecting bee for dinner. Only recently scientists have officially documented the camouflaging  capabilities of a crab spider. It is one of the few spider species that can reversibly change the color of their bodies to match the colors of the flowers where they hang out and stalk prey. Although it can take up to 25 days to change color, once changed they can largely remain unseen. What colors are on their pallet … white, yellow and green. See how this works for a clever crab spider. In the final analysis, a spider’s worst enemy is weather; in the form of drought, flooding or a long cold winter. Since these kinds of things happen to all the organisms in the population, things eventually sort out.

spider holeTypes of Spiders – There are many types of spiders living on More Mesa and in your house or garden.  Among these are the famous Orb Weavers that charm and delight us. (We will talk a lot about these in Part II.)  There are also Wolf Spiders, who are one of the few species with good eyesight. They have to catch prey by running it down. Their lives are hard, strenuous and dangerous; and actually, more like that of a cheetah than a wolf. Finally, on a foggy morning in More Mesa you may be able to see dozens of funnel that are the home of Funnel Spiders in the grasses.  Look for the hole in the funnel, she’s waiting for some unwary insect to drop in for lunch!
Let’s go back to that kindergartner again. Most adults would not agree with the kindergartner’s assessment of the spider as “cool”. They may shudder and use words like “heebie-jeebies.” However, spiders have intrigued humans since ancient times, and were often seen as mystical because of their ability to weave intricate webs. Much like the bat, cat, and the owl, spiders (as Halloween symbols and otherwise) are creatures considered to be endowed with supernatural qualities. And, like other creatures of the night, they were associated with witchcraft. More clinically oriented people will cite spider bites as a problem, but the reality is that spiders rarely bite and only a few species are dangerously poisonous, viz. the Black Widow and the Brown Recluse in the US. (Only one death has been reported in the last 20 years.) On the flip side, spiders are an incredibly powerful aid to the entire human race. It is the large numbers of insects, many of them pests, that are trapped by spiders, that make them invaluable to us and to the balance of nature. In fact, Spiders catch and eat more insects than all of the other insectivorous animals put together. They deserve our hearty applause!

applause

It is hoped that when you finish reading all the different, yet strangely similar activities of spiders, you will be fascinated by the various ways they “make a living”. During the research for this Treasure Hunt I was both intrigued and amazed at these tiny creatures … and realized that they are not so spooky after all. While reading Part II (coming up soon), the women among our readers may recognize, as I did, some startling similarities between the lives of female spiders and all the things we do. Stay tuned for the rest of the tale of the spiders … and most of all …STAY SAFE … Valerie